Rehabilitation for Gait Restoration Using Functional Electrical Stimulation

Main Article Content

Rika Wahyuni Arsianti
Achmad Arifin


Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is used to assist paralyzed patients in restoring their ability to move due to damage to the central nervous system, spinal cord injury or stroke. FES delivers electrical pulses to nerve or muscle tissue to activate the muscles to move. The human musculoskeletal system has different responses between subjects and changes in muscle characteristics from time to time during electrical stimulation. Fuzzy controller is used to overcome the problem of nonlinearity of the muscle system. The purpose of this study is to restore the ability to knee joint extension movement using FES. The results show that achieving the target extension angle can be achieved and is able to cope with different subject responses.

Article Details

How to Cite
R. W. Arsianti and A. Arifin, “Rehabilitation for Gait Restoration Using Functional Electrical Stimulation”, Fidelity, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128-135, May 2023.
Received 2023-04-21
Accepted 2023-05-17
Published 2023-05-31


Miller EL, Murray L, Richards L, et al. "Comprehensive overview of nursing and interdisciplinary rehabilitation care of the stroke patient: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke 2010;41(10):2402-48

Howlett, Owen A., et al. "Functional electrical stimulation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review with meta-analysis." Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 96.5 (2015): 934-943.

Popović, Dejan B. "Advances in functional electrical stimulation (FES)." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 24.6 (2014): 795-802.

Freeman, C. T. "Newton-method based iterative learning control for robot-assisted rehabilitation using FES." Mechatronics 24.8 (2014): 934-943.

Rueterbories, Jan, Erika G. Spaich, and Ole K. Andersen. "Gait event detection for use in FES rehabilitation by radial and tangential foot accelerations." Medical engineering & physics 36.4 (2014): 502-508.

Kawashima, Noritaka, Milos R. Popovic, and Vera Zivanovic. "Effect of intensive functional electrical stimulation therapy on upper-limb motor recovery after stroke: case study of a patient with chronic stroke." Physiotherapy Canada 65.1 (2013): 20-28.

Faghri, Pouran D., et al. "The effects of functional electrical stimulation on shoulder subluxation, arm function recovery, and shoulder pain in hemiplegic stroke patients." Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 75.1 (1994): 73-79.

Watanabe, Takashi, and Takumi Tadano. "Design of closed-loop fuzzy FES controller and tests in controlling knee extension movements." IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems 100.9 (2017): 2261-2264.

Poboroniuc, Marian-Silviu, et al. "A fuzzy controller to support FES-based sitting-down in paraplegia." 2018 International Conference and Exposition on Electrical And Power Engineering (EPE). IEEE, 2018.

Montoya, Daniela, et al. "Biomechanical Assessment of Post-Stroke Patients’ Upper Limb before and after Rehabilitation Therapy Based on FES and VR." Sensors 22.7 (2022): 2693.

Sadowsky, Cristina L., et al. "Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury." The journal of spinal cord medicine 36.6 (2013): 623-631.

Kesar, Trisha, and Stuart Binder‐Macleod. "Effect of frequency and pulse duration on human muscle fatigue during repetitive electrical stimulation." Experimental physiology 91.6 (2006): 967-976.

Thrasher, Adam, Geoffrey M. Graham, and Milos R. Popovic. "Reducing muscle fatigue due to functional electrical stimulation using random modulation of stimulation parameters." Artificial organs 29.6 (2005): 453-458.

Lagerquist, Olle, and David F. Collins. "Influence of stimulus pulse width on M‐waves, H‐reflexes, and torque during tetanic low‐intensity neuromuscular stimulation." Muscle & nerve 42.6 (2010): 886-893.

Arpin, David J., et al. "Optimizing neuromuscular electrical stimulation pulse width and amplitude to promote central activation in individuals with severe spinal cord injury." Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 1310

Laufer, Yocheved, et al. "Quadriceps femoris muscle torques and fatigue generated by neuromuscular electrical stimulation with three different waveforms." Physical therapy 81.7 (2001): 1307-1316.

Lyons, Christian L., et al. "Differences in quadriceps femoris muscle torque when using a clinical electrical stimulator versus a portable electrical stimulator." Physical Therapy 85.1 (2005): 44-51.

Karu, Zoher Z., William K. Durfee, and Aaron M. Barzilai. "Reducing muscle fatigue in FES applications by stimulating with N-let pulse trains." IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 42.8 (1995): 809-817.

Doucet, Barbara M., Amy Lam, and Lisa Griffin. "Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for skeletal muscle function." The Yale journal of biology and medicine 85.2 (2012): 201

Chizeck, Howard J., et al. "Feedback control of electrically stimulated muscle using simultaneous pulse width and stimulus period modulation." IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering 38.12 (1991): 1224-1234.

Alon, Gad. "Use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in neurorehabilitation: a challenge to all." Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 40.6 (2003): ix-xii.

Binder-Macleod, Stuart A., Esther E. Halden, and Kimberly A. Jungles. "Effects of stimulation intensity on the physiological responses of human motor units." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 27.4 (1995): 556-565.

Malešević, Nebojša M., et al. "Distributed low‐frequency functional electrical stimulation delays muscle fatigue compared to conventional stimulation." Muscle & nerve 42.4 (2010): 556-562.

Gorgey, Ashraf S., et al. "Effects of electrical stimulation parameters on fatigue in skeletal muscle." journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy 39.9 (2009): 684-692.

Fitts, Robert H. "Cellular mechanisms of muscle fatigue." Physiological reviews 74.1 (1994): 49-94.